The phrase “third-party reproduction” refers to the use of eggs, sperm, or embryos that have been donated by a third person (donor) to enable an infertile individual or couple (intended recipient) to become parents. Donors may be known or anonymous to the intended recipient. “Third-party reproduction” also includes traditional surrogacy and gestational carrier arrangements. Traditional surrogacy refers to a treatment in which a woman is inseminated with sperm for the purpose of conceiving for an intended recipient. The surrogate in this scenario has a genetic and biological link to the pregnancy she might carry. In contrast, a gestational surrogate (also called a gestational carrier [GC] or uterine carrier) is an individual in which embryos created by the intended parents are transferred into the surrogate’s uterus, which has been prepared hormonally to carry a pregnancy. The gestational surrogate has no genetic link to the fetus she is carrying. Traditional surrogacy arrangements often are perceived as controversial with the potential to be complicated both legally and psychologically. Despite the requirement for in vitro fertilization (IVF) to create embryos, the utilization of a gestational surrogate, legally, is a lower-risk procedure and is the more common approach conducted in the United States.
Third-party reproduction is a complex process requiring consideration of social, ethical, and legal issues. The increased use of egg donation has required a reconsideration of the social and ethical impact this technology has had on prospective parents, their offspring, and the egg donors themselves. Surrogacy has been acknowledged within the reproductive-medicine community as well as by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM).
Source: American Society for Reproduction Medicine, Third Party Reproduction Booklet.
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